March 3-31, 1916

Fri. March 3, 1916

Cloudy – Cool, Sun shone some, but wind was very chilly. Than came the first thing this morning, went to Bank & got what papers I had for Mortgage on Evansville house of Amelias. N.T. Says its sold & they are to pay up the Mtg. Wrote to Keohane abt discount on his ck, also to Denver abt stone to C.S. grave, read a good letter from Lola.

Saturday 4

Clear, nice day. I pasted up some bills for the anti-Saloon lectures that are to be delivered next week. Went to Temple early & stayed to  3’d degree work & to supper. Went to abstract office to get an abstract but it was not done. Pd my sub to paper & telephone line.

Sun. March 5, 1916

Cloudy & mild. V & I walked to church. Myra Harker & the Smileys were here to dinner. V & I went to Hi school to hear Mr. Bass in a recital. We came home with Ted Pott in auto & we did not go out again – Sub 100.16 towards Masonic Temple. Prof Reeds boy was arrested with a loaded automatic in his pocket & they sent him to Mass Military School.

Monday 6

Cloudy & mild & rainy. We washed & hung clothes in the cellar & they got dry by night. I went to town this p.m. and had quite a time playing pool Billards. I won 3 games. We did not go to hear Dan Smith as it was too lowery, had letters from Laura & Clara. I wrote to Laura today too, also to our girls.

March 3-6

Tues. March 7, 1916

Clear & bright & mild. A nice day. I loafed around home & did not have very much fun out of it. We got no letters today. I went to town with Smiley & came home with Ted. Uncle David H. Wright 96 years old, oldest member of our lodge, died today, been sick good while. No letter from girls.

Wednesday 8

Clear & chilly but mild. V & I went to Edgerton to see the two ol hens Clara & Hannah and we were there to dinner & supper, & had a good visit. We came home at 8K. Wis beat Chgo basketball 24 to 12. Helen with Mr. Jordan, Edith was home the most of day. I walked down town to see the fire ruins, burned out several stores yesterday in Edgerton.

Thur. March 9, 1916

Vogts time up today. Will wait till Monday before making any move, but he certainly is indifferent as to my actions in matters of foreclosure on Butler St. property. Uncle David H Wright buried today & a very large attendance the M E Church was packed full. V went to her club at Mrs. Bishoffs, quite Windy. No letters from girls as yet.

Friday 10

Clear & Pleasant. I called up the City-Treas office and found out that Vogt had not paid taxes on the Butler St. Property 94.88, 2% penalty. So got Richmond after him & he says he will have the whole amount tomorrow. Mr. Hall sent out nomination papers & I went calling on people & got quite a few names. Got Edgar Smith to work too. Bobby has the measles.

March 7-10

Sat. March 11, 1916

Clear & Fine this forenoon, clouded over at noon & was snowing at dark this evng. Mr. Vogt pd the taxes on the Butler St. Property & I have told Mr. Richmond to force him to live up to his contract. Went to Temple this p.m. & had good time, But got very lame as Rheumatism is bothering my legs. No letters from Lola all week.

Sunday 12

Clear & very pleasant. We walked to church and it made my lame leg worse, aches like fun tonight. Mr. & Mrs. Adams was out to our house to dinner. We had chicken. They went home at 4:30 or 5K. Helen had two men today, one in p.m. & Mr. Jordan this eve. They went to Pres chch. We had Spanish Prof Cantu lecture on Mexico, had illustrated slides.

Mon. March 13, 1916

Clear pt of time & cloudy the balance of day. We did not wash. I read some to folks, got dirt in celler for tomatoe plants. Went down town this eve, recd tax receipts & find that Mr. Hines pd the 31.00 that was assessed on the Emerald St. lots. Helen had a crying spell because her Pa sent Mr. Emerson his picture & did not send her any.

Tuesday 14

Cloudy & cool. and I did not have very much to do. Wrote to Geo Hines he owes me 4.o7 & put it up to him to pay it or not. Went to Temple. N.T. was at our house to supper & all nite. V went to church to the S S Convention. Lattie Richards is at Smileys. We sent out the girls letters today.

March 11-13

Wed. March 15, 1916

Cold & Raw. N. T. went to attend court this a.m. he walloped me good on ckrs. I wrote to Bills Bros again this a.m. also to Em as we got a letter from them but they sent no receipts at all. Went over to the flat this a.m. Mr. Redders moves to the lower story at 14.00 til we rent the upper story then pays 15.00, rec’d letters from Mr. Jones & guess we will let Helen go.

Thursday 16

Clear & Mild. I read to the folks & finished a book called “Spinner in the Sun.” Went to Temple, my left leg is so lame is fairly hurts me. No news. We got a nice letter from Edna & they are all pretty well. Bobby is getting anxious for a baby sister as Jack has one. Helen is going to board at Hannomans after Monday.

Fri. March 17, 1916

Clear & Raw. I was at home all a.m. Started a Wren house. Got nice letter from Lola, they are all well. Went to the Temple. V & I went to hear UW girls Glee Club concert at Library Hall, Very good. Mr. Vogt did not pay anything today to Richmond. After Helen goes, guess we will go down to Kankakee.

Saturday 18

Clear & nice the most of day, snowed some this a.m. I was home all forenoon. Went to Temple this p.m. did not hear from Vogt affair today at all. TCR said he would phone me but presume he was too busy to attend to it. The Mexico trouble with Villa may amount to pretty large war. No news to speak of.

March 15-18_0001

Sun. March 19, 1916

Clear & nice. V & I rode to church on St. Car & back on Nacoma Bus. We had chicken dinner. Helen was not with us. She was at Helen Olsons last nite & to Blanch Foxes for dinner. She does not feel very well tonite. I did not feel so very well myself this a.m. but soon got better. If I was free from rheumatism I would be OK. Thank God for the many blessings we do have. We sent girl’s letters out tonite.

Monday 20

Clouldy & Mild. We did not wash as looked for rain. Did not do much, got another dirty letter from Denver Tombstone Men and he threatens to remove the stone if his bill is not paid by Apl 1’st. Will write to Ev to take money & settle with the old man Hefner at Arriba, got letter from Forrest Richards about Marsh land.

Tues. March 21, 1916

Clear & Mild. We washed & got out large one by 10K. Wrote to Eve, Forest Richards, Keohane. Keohane made a poor lease. I told him to make a better one or order man off the place McMinigal. Forest Richards wanted I should go to Portage to look some land up with idea of buying – don’t want it. Wrote Eve to get Mr. Graves address in Denver. Chas Richards phoned me tonite from Watertown, coming here tomorrow.

Wednesday 22

Cloudy & mild. We had abt a foot of snow on the ground the a.m. & I had a great time cleaning off the sidewalks. T. Gilberts walk too as Ted was not at home. Charles Richards was coming to see us today but he did not get here till after 9K as trains were late. We had nice letter from Edna, Fordyce is out of bandage now & feels better.

March 19-22

Thur. March 23, 1916

Clear & Fine, nice day. Chas Richards was here & visited, all fare now. We walked over to Zoo & saw animals after our dinner. We went to town to see the Hooks, called on Nome & Stebe too. He was sick & in his room. I got 50.00 ck from Vogt and agreed to let him have till end of 6 mos for payments instead of beginning, if he paid all up by April 15th.

Friday 24

Clear & Warmer, thawed lots. We decided to go to Kankakee tomorrow for couple weeks. Made arrangements to have a ballot mailed me so can vote by mail. Had Denver Med put on my knee. Water annoying me again at 1127 Emerald St, over flowing the sink in lower story. Got nice letter from Lola today. Sent ck 20.oo to Mr. Graves Denver a/c Em.

Sat. March 25, 1916

Thunder & Lightning & Raining. We got away on 8K train for Lola’s. Met Mrs Baus at depot, she went to Detroit to visit her son. We got to KKK at 2:30, could not find any trace of Pottengers. We went to house but Lola did not come till 5:45. Lloyd met us at little store where he stopt to get gasoline & was surprised enough. We visited & played Rook. Lester is fine little baby.

Sunday 26

Damp, Misty & Rainy. We 4 went to church & heard good sermon, had chicken dinner & James & wife were here too. We had good sleep after dinner. We did not go out this evening. Rained hard this afternoon. Lloyd is busy getting out trees to ship. Little Lester is busy buzzing around & trying to walk.

March 23-26

Mon. March 27, 1916

Cloudy, damp & Raining all day. Lloyd put in a busy day getting out trees, shipped carload & started another, all on exchanges. I was home all fore noon & went to YM to play billiards, played Mr. Troup & Mr. Butler & got beaten both games. Wrote to Edna & invited her down to spend Sunday. We all went to YM to watch them play Basket Ball.

Tuesday 28

Cloudy & damp all day. I put some shellac on cupbord in pantry. Went down to YM this p.m. and played 4 games billiards, 2 with Clyde & 2 with Mr Perry Armstead, & won half of them. Villa, Lola busy dressmaking. Lloyd has quite fun, men working for him getting out trees & shipping. Bot Lola’s Telephone stock & gave it to Arvilla.

Wed. March 29, 1916

Cloudy this a.m. Clear the p.m. & was pretty nice day. I did not do much only take care of Lester while Lola & Arvilla went down town to trade. He did not sleep 10 mins. This p.m. they went to Woman’s Club Meeting. I stayed here till 4K. Got card from Mrs. Adams saying Mr. Adams had double Pneumonia again, am very much afraid he will not pull through.

Thursday 30

Clear & very nice day. I loafed around the house this fore noon & went to YM this p.m. had pretty good time meeting different men. We all went to the T S. Board supper at Mr. Meyers & had a good one. We played some cards & visited some, rec’d another card from Mrs. Adams saying Mr. A was better.

March 27-30

Fri. March 31, 1916

Cloudy & Rainy. I was going out to paint some stakes for nursery but it rained & Lloyd did not come in for me. He has a force of men working for him. I got Ballot from Madison & voted by mail for Mr. Nelson. Wrote to Mrs. Adams again & sent her Lester’s picture. Lola & Villa went down town & rubbered & traded some. Alice the girl went home for Sunday.

February 24-March 2, 1916

Thur. Feb. 24, 1916

Cloudy & Mild. We washed and McKay called and wanted I should come down this fore noon to see about loan of 1600.00 to Fredericks the fighting Parson, but abst. had not been looked over so I will wait. Wheat took a big drop today of 6 cts, hope Keohane sold yesterday. No letters from either girl this week as yet, guess we better wait till last of wk to write.

Friday 25

Cloudy & mild. Nothing doing, had letter from Edna. The Hatfields said they would vacate the 15th. Redders want to move into lower story. I told Mr. Richmond to delay the abstract till Monday, hoping I would get returns from Keohane. V & I went to Wis-Purdue Basket Ball game, 35 to 22 favor Wis.

Sat. Feb. 26, 1916

Cloudy & Raw. I had to pay 10.35 water tax &c on 1125 Emerald St. property, a/c foolishness some on my part & back payments of Geo Hines. Went to Temple. Geo & Gard Ingraham were out. I got 400.00 more money on joint rate a/c Amelia. I paid my taxes today for city of 265.00. Heard from Keohane he will receipt.

Sunday 27

Clear & cool. Helen Olson is with Helen Jones last nite. We went to church & to Adams to dinner and had a good one too, fried Halibut. We stayed till 4:30. Than & Stanley came at noon & stay all nite. Stan been to Chgo wi two cars hogs. He does not seem very well. Than has hard cold. We heard Dr. Hevaland at chch. Very good. Did not write to girls.

Mon. Feb 28, 1916

Cloudy & cool. We washed some no we didn’t. Than & Stanley were here all 3 of us went down town but I did not feel so very good so came home thought would get recuiltane[?] from Keohane but nothing doing. did not go down town. Than & Stanley both went home, started letters to the girls. V & I went to Wis-Iowa.

Tuesday 29

Clear & Cool, 10 above this a.m. but thawed some during day. I finished letters to the girls today, but Villa not written as yet. No returns from wheat, don’t see why Keohane down not recuit. We went to Bishops to a surprise in their new house. Had a nice time.

Wed. March 1, 1916

Cloudy & Snowy all day. March came in like lion. We moved here 10 years ago. I rec’d ck from Keohane for the wheat 3017.30. Pd 1000.00 on the 1600.00 note at bank & took up a mortgage on house over near our flats. Villa went to the Wimadausis [Methodist Womans Club]. I went to Temple late, made two trips over to the flats to rent, lots of calls but no sure nuff renters.

Thursday 2

Cloudy, snowed & clear, changeable day. Oldenberg was here this a.m to see abt the painting Ransom house. We went over to the flats to see about painting them. Had nice letter from Edna. JQ seems to be seems to be getting there. V & I both went down town. Cold this eveng. We play dominoes every evening, rec’d letters from Denver regarding CSG monument. gave Vogt week to pay his 195.00.


Feb 24-27

Feb 28-Mar2









February 20-23, 1916

Sun. Feb. 20, 1916

Sun was shinning fine when we got up but clouded over & was so till night. V & I went to Anna Boyce’s funeral and I was bearer. After we went to Smileys to dinner & had a good one. Finished my letter to our girls. V & I went to church this evening and heard Dr. Chase speak on “Billy Sunday,” it was very good. We also went into Pres. Church & heard their sing a little.

Monday 21

Cloudy & mild. A nice day. We did not wash and I varnished the couch. Went down to Bank & fixed up my papers at Bank. Wheat mkt. very punk. I wired to Keohane to talk it over with Elevator men & unless he could see justification for holding better sell at once.

Tues. Feb. 22, 1916

Cloudy & mild, Plummers went over to Emerald St. & found grease trap froze up. I took lot salt over & left it in trap & sink. No news to speak of only letters from Keohane regard McNeese quarter sec land. Went to Temple, got walloped. Mr. Vogt says call tomorrow. Mr. McKay says he will have 1600.00 loan ready in day or two.

Wednesday 23

Clear & mild. V & I went over to Flats & I worked on the frozen grease trap and got it in working order this p.m. Went to Temple for an hour. Went to see Vogt & he said he would get the money to me by Saturday. Went to see Adams, stayed to supper, had oysters. He ate as much as I. Keohane wired abt selling wheat & told him to sell.

Feb 20-23_0001

February 16-19, 1916

Wed. Feb. 16, 1916

Water was froze up over at Emerald St. 1127, froze in celler under the ground. Mr. Rayston was to send a man over but didn’t. Went to Temple & to Orpheum, poor show for me. Villa & I called on the Davises this eve & Helen & us went to bed through window a/c hall being varnished. Mr. Keohane thinks better hold wheat some longer.

Thursday 17

Clear, Fine. Mr Skaring finished up house and he told Villa he did not make a dollar on the job. I told McKay would take loan of 1600.00 on house over near my Emerald St. property 3 yr 6%. Mr. & Mrs. Smiley came to see us this evening – got our house in nice shape inside & out for this summer. Mr. Adams is better tonight.

Fri. Feb. 18, 1916

Cloudy & mild a nice day, was home all fore noon, called on Mr. Vogt this p.m. No money yet, guess will get it this week maybe. He is hard up for ready money. Anna Boyce died last night or this a.m., leaves Fred last survivor of Boyce family. Wrote to Hannah & Clara this p.m.

Saturday 19

Clear & mild. Paid 60.00 Int. on Emerald St. Prop to Am Ger Bank to W. W Warmer a/c. Wrote to Chas & Rose Patchin & sent them 1.00 a/c of their little son. Harold Palmer got letter from Lola & they are all well but Lester has cold – We tried to go to Basket Ball game but could not get in. We went to Smileys & played some R Set. Mrs. S. & I won.

Feb 16-19_0001


February 12-15, 1916

Sat, Feb. 12, 1916

Clear & mild, painters got through & went home right after dinner. I paid them 83.00 besides board & 1.45 freight chgs. Mr Skarning is coming back next week to do some more. I sent Eve Graves 20.00 and wrote to her abt the monument. Our paper keeps cracking. Hope it will let up soon. We got Amelia down stairs & we will go up ladder to sleep & have Helen climb too or go elsewhere.

Sunday 13

Clear & Cool & Pleasant. Villa & Helen went to church. I did not but I feel pretty well, but I hope to keep from catching any more cold. Helen has had great time with beaux today, kept telephone pretty hot. Wrote to both girls. We got a phone from Mable Alsop that Mrs. F.R. Melvin is to be buried tomorrow 10:30 at Brooklyn [Wisconsin]. Villa will go down.

Mon. Feb. 14, 1916

Clear & pleasant. Villa & I went to Brooklyn to attend the funeral of Mrs. F. R. Melvin who was brought to Alsops Sunday p.m. We went to Jap Ellis to dinner and had a good one & good visit, also called on Pillens. Met Austin Melvin at depot too, called on Mr. Foye & he paid 15.00 & said he wished I would give Hatfield a good Jacking up, so we meet tomorrow 5:30 to 6K at Hatfields.

Tuesday 15

Clear & very fine day. Warming & thawed quite a bit. I deposited some cks & did quite a few errands. We also did our washing. I was at the Temple this p.m. & played Ben Oakey, came out even. Went over to Emerald St. property & could not get the two men together so will let them fite their own battles.

Feb 12-15

February 8-11, 1916


The above clipping from The day book. (Chicago, Ill.) February 08, 1916, Last Edition Image 27.

Tues. Feb. 8. 1916

Cloudy, & cold – looked like snow all day, sun did shine in aft little. No letters from girls today – Wheat mkt. was better today & hope it may keep doing better till we can sell. The painters worked today on our bedroom & hall, think they will be thru by Friday any way. Told Dr Evans better come.

Wednesday 9

Cloudy & cool, but warmer than it has been. Dr. Evans was out & left some new medicine for me. I walked up to Drug Store and guess I did not catch any cold. Villa went over to the flats & collected the rent due. Painters got upstairs all papered – got bathroom to fix yet. Commenced on front room. We got everything in Music room. Villa went for club meet.

Thur. Feb. 10, 1916

Cloudy. Feel pretty bum yet. V & I called on Mrs. Smiley this p.m. & my head aches just awful. Will be glad when painters & paper hangers get through. Wheat down to 1.13. Wrote to Keohane.

Friday 11

Cloudy & mild. I lay abed all day today, felt pretty bum, I tell you head ache all day. Painters were busy & smell of paint was awful. Amelia has a terrible pain in stomach, hurts her when she coughs. Villa & Mrs Emerson went to see decorations at capital. Junior Brown had Dr. Evans out again.


February 4-7, 1916

Fri. Feb. 4, 1916

Cloudy Cold & snowed. Still shut in house, cold & head don’t seem to gain much, thought I felt better today, but cough is bothersome yet. I wrote to Luther today at St. Petersburg, Fla.

Helen felt pretty blue today when she found she had a poor in Harmony. No letter from Lola this week. She certainly is getting out of letter writing.

Saturday 5

Clear & cool, Very nice day & I am still shut in. Hope can go out Monday, head & cough seems better, appetite OK. We got nice letter from Lola. She & Lloyd have joined M & C at K3[Kankakee] – May God bless them abundantly. Mrs. Gordon died this a.m., only sick a few days with pneumonia. V’s Aunt Clara & Mrs B all went to Orpheum this p.m. Helen is going stay with Irene Polk tonite.

[wheat] 1.18 Feby 4-

Sun. Feb 6, 1916

Clear some – snowed some. V & Mrs. Biggert went to Chch, Clara stayed with Amelia. Helen to study & I to cough, hope to wear it out this week. Clara went home 3:45.  Mrs B went to depot with her. Mr & Mrs Emerson called on us little while this p.m. Mrs. Gordon buried today, was to church last Sunday. Wrote to both girls.

Monday 7

Cloudy & cold, 10 Below. A cold day, Skarney & Fritz Wolfe came from Evansville to do our papering & painting, got parlor done and kitchen all primed for second coat. Had Mr. Holt fix little corner in kitchen. No news to speak of. Auntie Brown got several cards & letters, she is 82 today & Lester Graves Pottenger is 1 yr. May God bless & keep them both.

Attend Tomado Montreal CA House. [?]


January 31-February 3, 1916



Clipping from The day book. (Chicago, Ill.) February 02.1916, Last Edition.


Wh 1.19 Saturday

Mon. Jan. 31, 1916

Clear & cold – 16 above. The folks washed today but I did not help as have been pretty bum all day. Had Dr. Evans out and he gave me some med. No news only wheat is on the bum too – Mkt lowest it has been for weeks. Clara [sister of Arvilla, married James Peck] with us yet. Helen Jones busy with final exams for Med Semister.

Tues. Feb 1

Clear & cold – 4 below zero. A nice cold day, I felt fairly well all day but got little more cold and made me cough more. Ernest Slauson came this pm & stayed till 10K then he started for S. Paul on way home he thinks Hitch & Son may buy the 80, but if they do they will pay 60.00 & I have the crop.

Monday wh 1.16

Wed. Feb. 2, 1916

Clear & cold, Zero. Coughed till 1K then went to sleep & slept pretty well, but feel pretty bum, taking Med of Dr. Evans & don’t see much if any improvements. V went over to Fairoaks to dinner at Mrs. Bentley. Pretty cold nite I think. Had letter from Edna. They are all well. Mr. AW. Winegan wrote good letter abt Colorado land.

Thursday 3

Clear & cold, about Zero. A cold pleasant day. Wheat mkt is bum & so am I. Cough lots & head aches –got the grippe all right, but have fair appetite.

No news today, Clara & Villa went to town & called on a Mrs. Hickok. No chance to rent the flat beats the Germans

Jan 31-Feb3

Cost acct Jan

January 27-30, 1916

Clipping from The day book. (Chicago, Ill.) January 29, 1916.

Wh 1.19 Monday

Thur. Jan 27, 1916

Cloudy & mild. 40 above. Rained considerable during the nite, tank run over. No letters from Lola this week at all, spose Lester [Lester Graves Pottenger, Lola’s first son, born 15 February 1915] & her work keeps her busy the most of time. Hope it will get to 1.25 soon & get that off our minds. We went down to Smiley’s & Mrs S & I got beat again. No other news to speak of. We talked some of going to Florida but nothing definite.

Friday 28

Cloudy, Mostly, 20 above. Not cold at all. I had pretty bad nite caught more cold yesterday someway and coughed all nite. Felt bum all day. Got card from Keohane saying wh[eat] was 1.21 Wednesday, down some today & yesterday too. Wrote to A. W. Winegas, Burlington Col [Colorado] about the farm down there. Did not go out doors all day – looks like storm of some kind coming.

Wh 1.21 Wednesday

Sat. Jan 29, 1916

Cloudy & misty. Sleeting. I walked over to Emerald St. and then took car to West Mad. to meet Clara – but the walking was very slippery. My cold is rather bothersome. Commenced to write the girls. Wheat mkt on down grade. Helen gone to stay over night with Miss Olson. Edna wrote about Fordyce [Edna’s son Robert Fordyce Ames] having near escape to getting killed or drowned. Thank God for the care & protection.

Sunday 30

Cloudy & mild, 18 above. I did not go out only to feed the chickens. Cold does not let up much if any. V & Mrs. Biggert went, Helen was away. Helen & Mrs. B went this eve to see Pilgrims Progress in Motion pictures in M.E. Church. No news to speak of. Snowing little this eve. Having terrible floods in California. Pray God may guide her & us all in everything.


Jan 27-30

January 23-26, 1916

Wh  1.17 last Fri

Sun. Jan. 23, 1916

Clear, fine, 30 above. Very nice day. I guess I feel little better than last night. Started letters to Lola & Edna and then we & Helen went to church & after chicken dinner we went down to Cong. Church to 4K sing. It was so close in there & I did not feel well so I got up & left was so faint. We took supper with Adams – Went to hear Dr. Chase talk on Jacob Reis the great Danish American.

Monday 24

Clear, Mild, 30 above. A nice day, it clouded over towards night and looks like storm brewing. I felt good deal like a fool all day, did not go to town, got a boil on back side & center of anatomy & it’s just awful sore. Got PC from Beach (Beach, ND, near his Montana land) saying wh(eat) worth 1.17 last Friday. No news to speak of got letter from Quincy [Quincy Ames, husband of daughter Edna] containing copy of letter he wrote to Dr. Montgomery.

Tues. Jan. 25, 1916

Cloudy & mild, 40 above, looked like rain. A mild day. I feel better today, have some cold & cough good deal night. Went to town this forenoon & finished up the loan 275.00 on little house in Oregon (Oregon, Wisconsin). Remained at home all afternoon. We got nice letter from Edna. Mrs Adams says Lola wrote her. Wish Lloyd could get into biz with Adams, think he might like it. Wheat boomed up again today.

Wednesday 26

Cloudy & mild, Rainy. I was home all day again, might have gone down town but N.T.(Slauson) & Mr. Skarney of On [?] came to see about doing some work for us & we are going to have 3 rooms down stairs Halls & our bedroom & Bath room & probably the kitchen before they get away. Will cost us about 100.00. Wheat stronger today. Letter from Mrs. Smith regarding the cemetery lot.

Jan 23-26